We source fuels responsibly

The most significant environmental impact of our supply chain is caused by fuels - coal and biomasses in particular. This is why we pay special attention to the origin and responsible use of the fuel.

The most significant fuel in electricity and heat production is natural gas. The next highest fuel use is uranium and coal. Russia accounts for 99% of our use of natural gas and 57% of our use of coal. Our aim is to maximise the added value from waste and biomass.

Close up of bio mass

Our fuels

Natural gas

The natural gas used in our power plants in Russia, the Baltic countries and Finland originates from several different suppliers in Russia. The natural gas used in Poland originated from Poland and the natural gas used in Norway originated from Norway.

Natural gas is the cleanest of the fossil fuels in terms of greenhouse gases and other flue-gas emissions with relation to produced energy, since it doesn't contain sulphur and generates only minimal particle emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions can be decreased with combustion technology. Potential leaks from gas pipelines have an impact on the climate because natural gas is almost 100% methane, which is a greenhouse gas worse than carbon dioxide.


The coal used in our power plants in Finland originates from Russia. The coal used in Poland originates from Poland. The power plants in Russia use coal originating from Russia and Kazakhstan.

Coal has big environmental impacts because of the carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particle emissions. However, various combustion and flue-gas cleaning technologies can decrease the flue-gas emissions to levels within the regulatory requirements.

Coal mining is a large-scale operation. Safety is an important issue in underground coal mines due to the risk of methane gas explosions, for example. We are a member of the Bettercoal initiative and use the Bettercoal Code and tools in assessing the sustainability of the coal supply chain. The Bettercoal vision is a coal supply chain that respects the rights of people and the environment, and contributes positively to the social wellbeing and economic livelihood of workers, producers and communities.



In addition to Finland, biofuels were used in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Norway. The biomass we used originated from Finland, Russia, the Baltic countries and Poland.

When used in a sustainable manner, biofuels mitigate climate change: new biomass is cultivated to replace the incinerated biomass, which absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Biofuels generate about the same amount of nitrogen oxide and particle emissions as coal, but, in general, less sulphur dioxide emissions.

Over 50% of the wood-based biofuel used by Fortum in 2019 originated from certified or controlled sources. In 2019, we improved the Chain of Custody management system for wood-based biomass fuel by strengthening the systematic risk assessments of supply chains and sourcing countries.

Waste-derived fuels

Waste-derived fuels

We use waste-derived fuel at our power plants in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Lithuania and Poland. The fuel used is mainly municipal and industrial waste collected locally. We also operate hazardous waste treatment and combustion plants in Finland, Sweden and Denmark.  

We believe that waste-to-energy production is an essential part of a sustainable waste management system. Waste-derived fuels can be used to replace fossil fuels and, at the same time, reduce the amount of waste ending up in landfills.

Strict limits have been set for flue-gas emissions from waste incineration, and the ash has to be treated properly.


Fortum HorsePower is a service concept in which Fortum delivers bedding to horse stables and picks up the bedding-manure mixture for combustion. We combust the bedding-manure mixture at the Järvenpää power plant.


Peat is combusted in Finland and Estonia. Peat is a domestic energy source in both countries.

Peat is treated in the same way as fossil fuels in climate policy. Peat-based fuel generates more greenhouse gas emissions than coal.

In addition to carbon dioxide, peat combustion also releases sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides as well as particles. Some methane is formed during the storage of peat.


Oil is used mainly in the start-up phase of power plants and in small heat boilers. Oil is a fossil fuel, so its environmental impacts are comparable to those of coal.


The fuel assemblies used at the Loviisa power plant in Finland are completely of Russian origin. The fuel supplier acquires the uranium used in the fuel assemblies from Russian mines in accordance with Fortum’s agreement. In 2019, the uranium originated from the Krasnokamensk, Khiagda and Dalur mines.

Mining and enrichment of uranium ore are comparable to any mining activity. Due to the radioactive activity of uranium, special attention is paid to the handling and storage of residual waste to minimize environmental impacts.

Both ARMZ Uranium Holding Co., a uranium producer, and TVEL, which is responsible for refining and manufacturing uranium, have environmental and occupational safety systems in place in all their plants. All three uranium mines have ISO 14001 environmental certification. The Khiagda mine has also an OHSAS 18001 certified occupational health and safety management system. ARMZ Uranium Holding Co., a uranium producer, and TVEL, which is responsible for refining and manufacturing uranium, have certified environmental and occupational safety systems in place in all their plants, as do the plants manufacturing zirconium material, uranium oxide pellets and fuel assemblies.

We regularly assess the quality, environmental, and occupational health and safety management systems of our nuclear fuel suppliers and the manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies. In 2019, Fortum’s representatives assessed the operations of Fortum’s Russian fuel supplier’s conversion and enrichment plants. The plants were in good technical condition, and their integrated management system covered certified quality, environmental and security systems.

The spent fuel removed from a nuclear reactor is highly radioactive waste, which is initially stored in a controlled environment at the power plant. Loviisa power plant’s spent nuclear fuel will eventually be disposed of in Posiva’s final repository in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki.

Read more


Learn more about our fuel sourcing in 2019


Read about sustainable supply chain management

Read about the Bettercoal Assessment Programme